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Known as the ‘Carpet City’, Bhadohigets its name from Bhar Raj of the region, which had Bhadohi as its capital. Carpet weaving in Bhadohi-Mirzapur region dates back to the 16th century, during the reign of Mughal Emperor, Akbar and is believed to have established when centuries ago, some Iranian master weavers stopped at Madhosingh village, near Khamaria, in Bhadohi while travelling in India, and subsequently set up looms here.Traces of its origin can be found in the names of ruined mounds and old tanks named after the Bhar rulers who were part of the Kannauj kingdom. The Bhadohi district is the biggest carpet-manufacturing centre in India, mostly known for its hand-knotted carpet.
Tools and Raw Materials:
Machinery and Hand Tools:
The type of machinery & equipment used in the production process are hand looms, broad looms, dyeing machine, Finishing Machine, Washing Equipments like scrapping machine. Loom is a wooden frame supporting the warp on which weaving of the carpet is done. Various types of hand tools like knife for cutting the yarn while tying the knots, a comb like tool for packing down the knots of weft while weaving, a pair of shears for trimming the yarn, tufting machine which resembles a large scissor are required for the process of carpet making. Majority of the machinery suppliers exist outside the cluster.
The major raw material used for the carpet making is the yarn which is made of wool. Yarn is either procured from local spinning mills or from Bikaner and Surat through traders. The Tibetan wool has a strong, good fibre length, good luster and a high resilient value. The New Zealand wool is of 36 micron, 100 mm barb length and is identified as type 128. British wool meeting regulatory standards have also started being made available in the market. More than 90% of the yarn is purchased, dyed and supplied to weavers/tiny manufacturers by Merchant Export Firms (MEFs) and Manufacturing Export Firms (MAFs).
Dyes and Chemicals:
Dyes used for the dyeing of wool also forms one of the important raw materials. Nowadays, weavers make use of synthetic dyes like mordant dyes, vat dyes etc. and vegetable dyes. But, in earlier times weavers used natural dyes derived from indigo plant, cochineal insects, wild roses, fruits. Wool can be dyed in mechanized dyeing plants or manually by soaking in dyes and then steaming. Chemicals used in chemical and mechanical finishing are supplied through dealers and distributors operating in the cluster.
The wool to be used for carpet weaving goes through following process before designs on carpet are drawn. These are:
• Washing and Drying of the wool
• Dyeing / Coloring
Once the designs are decided and drawn, the wrapping i.e. arranging of the yarn for lengthwise weaving and finally knotting, weaving and then trimming of the carpet is done.
The finished weaved carpet is then goes for washing i.e. Chemical Finishing. Washing removes dust, fine particles, swelling of fibers, soft fibre and finally, the required softness and luster are achieved. Washing is done with water mixed with soap, bleaching powder and other natural chemicals. Washed carpet is dried in sunlight for 4-5 days.
Evolution of Bhadohi Carpets:
With passage of time, this industry has modernized itself with the introduction of technology and discarding the primitive handmade tools, which used to absorb a lot of time and labor.
The present day Bhadohi district is biggest carpet manufacturing centres in India, most known for its hand-knotted carpet. Bhadohi is known as “Carpet City”. While the Mirzapur-Bhadohi region has the largest number of weavers involved in handmade carpet weaving cluster, engaging around 3.2 million people in the industry, Bhadohi alone employs 2.2 million rural artisans in its 100 percent export-oriented industry. Bhadohi based organisations account for about 75%t of the Rs 44 billion of total carpet exports from India.
Well known carpet types from Bhadohi include cotton Dhurry/Dhurries, Chhapra Mir carpets, Loribaft, Indo Gabbeh but also Nepalese carpets and more recent shaggy type carpets. They are manufactured in various qualities.
Six yards of elegance and comfort. That is what a saree is. We don’t think ….
Weaving a eNew Story – The Handloom Weavers of India
Since the dawn of civilization, handlooms have been associated with excellence in India’s artistry in textiles and fabrics, and sari which is considered to be the most ancient piece of clothing has been inspiring generations of artists and craftsmen to weave their dreams and visions into creating exquisite handloom sarees. However with passage of time, just like the clacking sounds of the looms, the dreams and visions of these weaves too are fading away.In an attempt to bring handloom sarees back in vogue, Shatika has begun a revolution; a six yard sari revolution is a humble attempt at bringing back the lost love for handloom sarees. Dedicated to creating a unique interpretation of the age old craft, we travel to all colourful corners of the country visiting weavers,guiding them on the latest trends so they weave out the age old tradition with a modern touch and bring them online so you can savor the delights of hand picking them from the comfort of your homes.