Bhadohi Carpet

Bhadohi Carpets


Known as the ‘Carpet City’, Bhadohigets its name from Bhar Raj of the region, which had Bhadohi as its capital. Carpet weaving in Bhadohi-Mirzapur region dates back to the 16th century, during the reign of Mughal Emperor, Akbar and is believed to have established when centuries ago, some Iranian master weavers stopped at Madhosingh village, near Khamaria, in Bhadohi while travelling in India, and subsequently set up looms here.Traces of its origin can be found in the names of ruined mounds and old tanks named after the Bhar rulers who were part of the Kannauj kingdom. The Bhadohi district is the biggest carpet-manufacturing centre in India, mostly known for its hand-knotted carpet.


Tools and Raw Materials:

Machinery and Hand Tools:
The type of machinery & equipment used in the production process are hand looms, broad looms, dyeing machine, Finishing Machine, Washing Equipments like scrapping machine. Loom is a wooden frame supporting the warp on which weaving of the carpet is done. Various types of hand tools like knife for cutting the yarn while tying the knots, a comb like tool for packing down the knots of weft while weaving, a pair of shears for trimming the yarn, tufting machine which resembles a large scissor are required for the process of carpet making. Majority of the machinery suppliers exist outside the cluster.

The major raw material used for the carpet making is the yarn which is made of wool. Yarn is either procured from local spinning mills or from Bikaner and Surat through traders. The Tibetan wool has a strong, good fibre length, good luster and a high resilient value. The New Zealand wool is of 36 micron, 100 mm barb length and is identified as type 128. British wool meeting regulatory standards have also started being made available in the market.  More than 90% of the yarn is purchased, dyed and supplied to weavers/tiny manufacturers by Merchant Export Firms (MEFs) and Manufacturing Export Firms (MAFs).

Dyes and Chemicals:
Dyes used for the dyeing of wool also forms one of the important raw materials. Nowadays, weavers make use of synthetic dyes like mordant dyes, vat dyes etc. and vegetable dyes. But, in earlier times weavers used natural dyes derived from indigo plant, cochineal insects, wild roses, fruits. Wool can be dyed in mechanized dyeing plants or manually by soaking in dyes and then steaming. Chemicals used in chemical and mechanical finishing are supplied through dealers and distributors operating in the cluster.


Making Process:

  1. Washing to Dyeing:

The wool to be used for carpet weaving goes through following process before designs on carpet are drawn. These are:
• Washing and Drying of the wool
• Carding
• Spinning
• Dyeing / Coloring

  1. Drawing the Design on a graph paper:
    After dyeing the wool with required colors, the designing process is followed. The designs are drawn on graph paper with proper measurements, so that it appears more accurate on the carpet. Each square on the graph represents a knot.
  2. Warping to Trimming:

Once the designs are decided and drawn, the wrapping i.e. arranging of the yarn for lengthwise weaving and finally knotting, weaving and then trimming of the carpet is done.

  1. Chemical Finishing or Washing:

The finished weaved carpet is then goes for washing i.e. Chemical Finishing. Washing removes dust, fine particles, swelling of fibers, soft fibre and finally, the required softness and luster are achieved. Washing is done with water mixed with soap, bleaching powder and other natural chemicals. Washed carpet is dried in sunlight for 4-5 days.

  1. Latexing and Finishing:
    Rear part of the carpet is covered with rubber so that it gets longevity and durability and final touches are given.



Evolution of Bhadohi Carpets:

With passage of time, this industry has modernized itself with the introduction of technology and discarding the primitive handmade tools, which used to absorb a lot of time and labor.

The present day Bhadohi district is biggest carpet manufacturing centres in India, most known for its hand-knotted carpet. Bhadohi is known as “Carpet City”. While the Mirzapur-Bhadohi region has the largest number of weavers involved in handmade carpet weaving cluster, engaging around 3.2 million people in the industry, Bhadohi alone employs 2.2 million rural artisans in its 100 percent export-oriented industry. Bhadohi based organisations account for about 75%t of the Rs 44 billion of total carpet exports from India.

Well known carpet types from Bhadohi include cotton Dhurry/Dhurries, Chhapra Mir carpets, Loribaft, Indo Gabbeh but also Nepalese carpets and more recent shaggy type carpets. They are manufactured in various qualities.






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